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Smilax, China

From: michael
Category: 斌匍佚連
Date: 5/1/2003
Time: 7:08:00 PM
Remote Name: 61.232.53.1

Comments

Smilax, China Genus: Smilax Botanical: Smilax, China (LINN.) Family: N.O. Liliaceae (Smilacaceae) Species: officinalis Scientific name Smilax China L. Japanese name SARUTORI IBARA ---Synonym---China. ---Part Used---Root. ---Habitat---Eastern Asia.

Common Names: Sarsaparilla, Salsaparrilha, Khao Yen, Saparna, Sarsaparilla, Smil ace, Smilax, Zarzaparilla

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[Series of Smilax, China powder extracts] Smilax root extracts, Smilax root P.E. 10:1 100:1 70%

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[Synoms]:Rhizoma Smilacis Chinensis Extracts, Smilax China L. p.e. Smilax China P.E. Smilax P.E.; Smilax Extracts. Sarsaparilla extracts, Salsaparrilha extracts, Khao Yen extracts, Saparna extrac ts, Sarsaparilla extracts, Smilace extracts, Smilax extracts, Zarzaparilla extracts.

Parts used and where grown: Many different species are called by the general name sarsaparilla. Various species are found in Mexico, South America, and the Caribbean. The root is used therapeutically.more details as following for ref:

Other Names: Commonly known as accordingly

Smilax regelii Kilip & Morton-- Honduran sarsaparilla Smilax aristolochiaefolia Miller--Mexican sarsaparilla; Smilax ornata Hooker-- Jamaican sarsaparilla; Smilax aspera-- Spanish sarsaparilla; Smilax glabra Roxburgh; Smilax febrifuga--Kunth Ecuadorian or Peruvian sarsapari lla, Smilax Papyracea---Brazilian or Rio Negro or Lisbon Sarsaparilla S . Aspera---Italian Sarsaparil[origin:South of France, Italy, etc.] S. ovalifolia---- is used medicinally in India.as Indian sarsaparilla; S. lanceaefolia---is used in India and has very large tuberous root-stocks. S. glyciphylla----is the Australian medicinal Sarsaparilla. S. macabucha----is used in the Philippines for dysentery and other complaints. a s Philippines Sarsaparilla. S. anceps----is the medicinal Sarsaparilla of Mauritius. Mauritius Sarsaparilla. In Persia the young shoots of some of the species are eaten as asparagus. S. pseudo-China and other species are used in basket-making. S. rotundifolia - Mexican - is said to be a diaphoretic and depurative.

[Synoms]:Rhizoma Smilacis Chinensis Extracts, Smilax China L. p.e. Smilax China P.E. Smilax P.E.; Smilax Extracts. Sarsaparilla extracts, Salsaparrilha extracts, Khao Yen extracts, Saparna extrac ts, Sarsaparilla extracts, Smilace extracts, Smilax extracts, Zarzaparilla extracts. [more synoms]: Smilax aristolochiaefolia Miller Extracts--(Mexican sarsaparilla Extracts); Smilax ornata Hooker Extracts--(Jamaican sarsaparilla Extracts); Smilax aspera Extracts--(Spanish sarsaparilla Extracts); Smilax glabra Roxburgh Extracts; Smilax febrifuga Extracts--(Kunth Ecuadorian sarsaparilla Extracts or Peruvian s arsaparilla Extracts), Smilax Papyracea Extracts--Brazilian Sarsaparilla Extracts or Rio Negro Sarsapar illa Extracts or Lisbon Sarsaparilla Extracts S. Aspera Extracts---Italian Sarsaparil Extracts[origin:South of France Sarsapar illa Extracts, Italy Sarsaparilla Extracts, etc.] S. ovalifolia Extracts----(Indian sarsaparilla Extracts;) S. lanceaefolia Extracts---(also Indian sarsaparilla Extracts Extracts; ) S. glyciphylla Extracts----(Australian medicinal Sarsaparilla Extracts). S. macabucha Extracts----(Philippines Sarsaparilla Extracts). S. anceps Extracts----(Mauritius Sarsaparilla Extracts.)

Chemical Content [Steroid saponins normally refer to: sarsaparilloside, along with parillin ]

[steroids of Smilax, China]: sarsasapogenin, smilagenin, sitosterol, stigmastero l and pollinastanol

[saponins of Smilax, China]:sarsasaponin, smilasaponin, sarsaparilloside, and si tosterol glucoside among others.

CAS NO.of main effective content [Sitosterol]: [Chemical Name]: sitosterol [CAS No]: 5779-62-4 [Synonyms]: si tosterol [Stigmasterol] [Chemical Name]: Stigmasterol [CAS No]: 83-48-7 [Synonyms]: st igmasterol [Sarsasapogenin] [Chemical Name]: sarsasapogenin [CAS No]: 82597-74-8 [Synonyms ]: sarsasapogenin [Abreviation]: SaG [formula]: C27H44O3

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Eastern Asia It has a hard, large, knotty, uneven rhizome, blackish externally , pale coloured or whitish internally.

Stem without support, about 3 feet high, but growing much taller if it has a bush to cling to.

Leaves thin, membraneous, round, five-nerved acute or obtuse at each end, muc ronate at points.

Stipules distinct obtuse; umbels greenish yellow, small ten-flowered;

fruit red, size of bird cherry.

This is the commercial China root, used as a substitute for Sarsaparilla.

It is in large ligneous pieces 2 to 6 inches long and about 2 inches in diamet er. O dourless, taste at first slightly bitter and acrid like Sarsaparilla. The root-s t ocks yield a yellow dye with alum and a brown one with sulphate of iron.

The root-stocks yield a yellow dye with alum and a brown one with sulphate of ir on.

Brazilian or Rio Negro or Lisbon Sarsaparilla is furnished by Smilax Papyracea .

All the Sarsaparillas have medicinal properties and can be used in the same wa y.

Sarsaparilla is efficacious in proportion to its acrid taste. The properties r es ide chiefly in the cortex, though the bark is generally used.

The name Smilax was used by the Greeks to denote a poisonous tree - others der iv e the name from Smile, i.e. a cutting or scratching implement, in allusion to th e rough prickles on the stem.

In commerce the varieties of Sarsaparillas are grouped as mealy and non-mealy, a ccording to the starch they contain. The farinaceous matter is found under the r i nd.

The mealy group include Smilax officinalis, Honduras, Caracas, Brazilian, Syph il itica and Papyraceae.

The non-mealy species are Jamaica Sarsaparilla, Mexican, Media and Lima.

The most esteemed varieties are Jamaica and Lima on account of their acrid tas te .

Brazilian or Rio Negro or Lisbon Sarsaparilla is furnished by Smilax Papyracea.

S . Aspera (habitat, South of France, Italy, etc.) yields the Italian Sarsaparil la which has the same properties as the American ones.

S. ovalifolia is used medicinally in India.

S. lanceaefolia is used in India and has very large tuberous root-stocks.

S. glyciphylla is the Australian medicinal Sarsaparilla.

S. macabucha is used in the Philippines for dysentery and other complaints.

S. anceps is the medicinal Sarsaparilla of Mauritius.

In Persia the young shoots of some of the species are eaten as asparagus.

S. pseudo-China and other species are used in basket-making.

S. rotundifolia - Mexican - is said to be a diaphoretic and depurative.

[effective content]:

Sarsaparilla contains

[the steroids of Smilax, China]: sarsasapogenin, smilagenin, sitosterol, stigmas terol and pollinastanol

Plant steroids and their actions in the human body are still a subject of much i nterest, too little research, and unfortunately, misinformation mainly for marke t ing purposes. Sarsaparilla has been erroneously touted to contain testosterone and/or other an ecbolic steroids. While it is a rich source of steroids and saponins, it has nev e r been proven to have any anecbolic effects, nor is testosterone found in sarsap a rilla or any other plant source thus far.

Sarsaparilla contains

[the saponins of Smilax, China]: sarsasaponin, smilasaponin, sarsaparilloside, a nd sitosterol glucoside among others.

Saponins and plant steroids found in many species of plants, including Sarsapari lla, can be chemically synthesized into human steroids like estrogen and testost e rone. This chemical synthesization has never been documented to occur in the human bod y - only in the laboratory.

There is no known toxicity or side effects documented for sarsaparilla, however ingestion of large dosages of saponins may cause gastro-intestinal irritation. I n 1986 a US Patent was filed which described that "an extract of sarsaparilla has

the advantage of exhibiting good cosmetic and detergent characteristics, while a t the same time, not only being practically devoid of toxicity, but also not caus i ng any irritation or stinging sensations when inadvertently the composition come s into contact with the ocular mucous."

[Clinical research of Smilax, China]: Clinical research on the pharmacological actions of Sarsasparilla has been vari ed over the years. Sarsaparilla was also used by the Chinese in the treatment of syphilis. Clinical observations in China demonstrated that sarsasparilla is effective, ac cording to blood tests, in about 90% of acute cases and 50% of chronic cases. It was shown clinically in 1942 to dramatically improve psoriasis which continu ed its validation and use as a blood purifying remedy. In the 1950's, the antibi o tic properties of sarsaparilla were documented. Its effective use as an adjuvant for the treatment of leprosy was documented in a human trial in 1959. It's anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects have

been shown in rats and improvement of appetite and digestion as well as diuretic

actions in humans has also been documented. Its blood-purifying actions was demonstrated when sarsaparilla demonstrated the ability to attack and neutralize microbial substances in the blood stream. The m ajority of Sarsaparilla's pharmacological properties and actions have been attri b uted to a pharmacologically active group of phytochemicals called steroids and s a ponins. The saponins have been reported to facilitate the absorption by the body of oth er drugs and phytochemicals which accounts for its history of use in herbal form u las as a bioavailability and herbal enhancement agent.

[History use of Smilax, China]:

Sarsaparilla has been used for centuries by the indigenous peoples of Central and South America for sexual impotence, rheumatism, skin ailment, and a tonic fo r physical weakness. Sarsaparilla root was used by South American indigenous tribes as a general to nic where New World traders found it and introduced it into European medicine in

the 1400's. European physicians considered it an alterative tonic, blood purifier, diureti c and diaphoretic. A sarsaparilla root from Mexico was introduced into European medicine in 1536, where it developed a strong following as a cure for syphilis and rheumatism. Si n ce this time, the Smilax genus has a long history of use for syphilis and other s exually transmitted diseases throughout the world. With its reputation as a blood purifier, it was registered as an official herb in the U.S. Pharmacopoeia as a syphilis treatment from 1820 to 1910. From the 1500's to present, Sarsaparilla is used as a blood purifier and gener al tonic, and has been used all over the world for the same conditions,: namely gout, syphilis, gonorrhea, wounds, arthritis, fevers, coughs, scrofula, hypertension, digestive disorders, psoriasis, skin disease, cancer and as a ton i c.

[Habit of Smilax, China]: Sarsaparilla is a large woody vine growing up to 50 meters in length and is nati ve to China,South America, Jamaica, the Caribbean, Mexico, Honduras and the West

Indies. The root, used for medicinal purposes, is long and tuberous and supports

a ground-trailing vine with paired tendrils for climbing. The fragrance of the r o ot is considered pleasant with a spicy sweet taste. Sarsaparilla vine should not

be confused with the tree, Sasparilla which was once used to flavor rootbeer. Th e re are many species of Smilax around the world that are very similar in appearan c e, uses and even chemical structure, including S. officinalis, S. regeli, S. ari s tolochiaefolia, S. febrifuga, S. sarsaparilla, and S. ornata.

[Properties/Actions]: Alterative, Aphrodisiac, Antibiotic, Anti-inflammatory, A nti-rheumatic, Antiseptic, Antipruritic, Anti-syphilic, Carminative, Depurative,

Diaphoretic, Diuretic, Febrifuge, Hepatoprotective, Hormonal, Steroidal, Stimula n t, Stomachic, Tonic

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